Mixing tap water with engine coolant is not recommended, as the minerals in tap water can lead to corrosion and deposits in your engine’s cooling system.
Instead, use distilled or softened water when mixing your own coolant.
- Tap water contains minerals that can cause scaling and corrosion when used in engine coolant.
- Distilled water works but is not ideal, as it can leach electrons from metal engine components.
- The best solution is softened water, which has the minerals removed but retains a balanced pH.
- Coolant should be replaced every 30,000 miles or according to your owner’s manual.
- When flushing your system, take proper safety precautions and dispose of old coolant properly.
What is Engine Coolant and Why Do You Need It?
Engine coolant, also called antifreeze, is a liquid that circulates through your engine to keep it from overheating. It flows through passages in the engine block and cylinder head, absorbing excess heat from the metal surfaces.
Without a cooling system using coolant, engine temperatures could quickly rise above 200°F during normal operation. At these extreme temperatures, engine oil breaks down, metal parts expand and warp, and the system eventually fails.
Coolant performs two essential functions:
1. Allows Safe Engine Operation at Normal Temperatures
The cooling system removes enough heat to keep engine temperatures in a safe range between 195-220°F. This prevents immediate damage to engine components.
2. Provides Freeze Protection
Coolant lowers the freezing point of the water-based solution well below 32°F. This prevents ice from forming and damaging the engine during cold weather starts.
These dual purposes are achieved by using a mixture of 50% antifreeze and 50% water. The antifreeze itself is usually ethylene glycol containing additives that inhibit corrosion.
Why Tap Water is Unsuitable for Mixing with Coolant
While coolant needs to be diluted with water, regular tap water is not recommended:
- Contains dissolved minerals – Tap water contains varying amounts of dissolved minerals like calcium, magnesium, iron, and copper. These minerals can leave deposits in the cooling system as the water evaporates over time.
- Promotes corrosion – The minerals make the coolant more corrosive to metal components like the radiator, water pump, and engine itself. Flakes of corrosion debris can plug up the system.
- Causes scale buildup – Calcium and magnesium precipitate out of hard tap water as scale deposits on hot metal surfaces. This insulation effect reduces heat transfer and engine cooling.
Even small amounts of tap water dilution over the years can lead to serious cooling system problems. Using distilled or softened water avoids these issues.
Distilled Water – A Temporary Solution
Many mechanics recommend using distilled water when mixing coolant. Distillation removes minerals, so it won’t leave deposits.
However, there are some downsides to using distilled water long-term:
- Aggressive mineral leaching – The lack of minerals makes distilled water unstable. It will pull electrons from metal engine parts, causing damage over time.
- No pH buffering – Distilled water has a neutral pH of 7.0. Buffer chemicals are needed to keep coolant pH between 5.5-9.0 for corrosion protection.
Overall, distilled water is a convenient short-term fix. But for sustained engine cooling system health, softened water is a better choice.
Softened Water – The Ideal Coolant Mix
Softened water is highly recommended for mixing with antifreeze when replacing coolant:
- Mineral-free – The softening process removes nearly all calcium and magnesium ions, preventing scale deposits.
- Stable pH – Softening adds back some minerals to balance the pH, avoiding leaching of engine metals.
- Added corrosion inhibitors – Many water softeners use sodium ions as part of the ion exchange process. Sodium helps control pH swings and acts as a corrosion inhibitor.
Softened water retains all the purity of distilled water but with some minerals added back for stability. This prevents both scale deposits and metal corrosion when used for mixing coolant.
How Often Should You Change Engine Coolant?
Coolant should be replaced according to the intervals specified in your owner’s manual. This varies by vehicle, but is typically every 30,000-60,000 miles or 2-5 years.
If your manual doesn’t specify, 30,000 miles or every 3 years is a good general guideline. More frequent changes may be needed if adding significant amounts of tap water over time.
Signs that your coolant needs changed immediately:
- Overheating engine
- Milky, oily, or bright colored coolant
- Sweet smell of coolant in the car
- Low coolant levels before scheduled maintenance
Routine coolant changes prevent corrosion damage and maintain proper freeze protection. Always use softened or distilled water when mixing your own replacement coolant.
DIY Coolant Replacement Tips
With some simple precautions, you can replace your engine coolant yourself and save on shop fees:
- Let the engine fully cool – Only open the radiator cap when cool to avoid burns.
- Work cleanly – Coolant stains and should be cleaned up immediately to avoid pets or kids ingesting it.
- Use proper containers – Drain old coolant into sealable containers. Avoid pouring down drains where it can contaminate groundwater.
- Dispose properly – Take old coolant to a recycling center that handles automotive fluids. Don’t just throw it in the trash.
- Check connections – Double check all drain hoses are secured before refilling coolant. Look for any leaks or weeping connections.
- Bleed air – After refilling, run the engine and bleed air from the cooling system. Top off the coolant level as needed.
FAQ About Engine Coolant
Below are answers to some frequently asked questions about coolant and mixing with tap water:
Is it okay to top off with tap water occasionally between coolant changes?
This should be avoided. Frequent tap water top-offs will slowly increase mineral deposits in the system. Use distilled water for top-offs if softened water is unavailable.
What colour should engine coolant be?
Traditionally ethylene glycol coolant is neon green. Newer extended life coolants are often orange, red, or yellow. Always consult your owner’s manual. Color is not a reliable indicator of coolant type.
Can I use boiled tap water instead of distilled water?
Boiling removes temporary hardness but not permanent hardness. The remaining calcium and magnesium ions will still cause scale formation over time. Distillation or softening is preferred.
Is it bad to mix different types of coolant together?
Yes, it can be. OAT and HOAT coolants can’t be mixed with traditional coolants. Mixing chemistries changes corrosion protection properties. Use only the specific coolant called for in your owner’s manual.
How do I know if my coolant is bad and needs replaced?
Coolant deterioration can be checked using test strips that measure freeze point and pH. Any reading outside the normal range means the corrosion inhibitors have broken down. At that point, full replacement is needed.
Mixing tap water with engine coolant is problematic due to the minerals tap water contains. It can lead to scale deposits, overheating issues, and corrosion in the cooling system.
The proper way to dilute coolant is by using distilled or softened water when mixing it 50/50. Softened water avoids mineral deposits while retaining some beneficial minerals and corrosion inhibitors.
Changing your coolant at the recommended intervals, and using the right water, will provide long engine life by preventing overheating. Always consult your owner’s manual for the proper coolant type and service intervals specific to your vehicle.